With the current hype about CGM (cgm continuous glucose monitoring), I decided last month to do some research around key dates of diabetes technology and diabetes in general.
As a visual person with diabetes type 1 myself, this Diabetes tech timeline is my first attempt to put on paper some of the several important discoveries starting with the development of a copper reagent for urine glucose by Benedict. Hopefully, to pin down some key dates and have a more visual representation of diabetes research. This is not by any means, an official refined timeline. Actually, through my many searches on Google, diabetes publications and a wide selection of books of diabetes I encountered some contradictions in terms of dates.
If you have found any discrepancies, have any important data, or you just want to say hi, please write to firstname.lastname@example.org 🙂
1908 - Benedict developed a copper reagent for urine glucose.
1921 - Frederick Banting and Charles H. Best discovered the hormone insulin in pancreatic extracts of dogs.
1963 - The first insulin pump was developed by Dr Arnold Kadish. It delivered both glucagon and insulin (only available for clinical use).
1965 - Ames developed the first blood glucose test strip, the Dextrostix, using glucose oxidase.
1971 - Glucose meter patent by Anton Hubert Clemens for commercial purposes.
1976 - Insulin pump - A more wearable version was later devised by Dean Kamen (portable infusion pump). Kamen formed a company called "AutoSyringe" to market the product, which he sold to Baxter Healthcare in 1981. The pump known as the “Big Blue Brick” was marketed in 1978.
1976 - CGM? - First commercial closed-loop bedside device in 1974-1976, the Biostator created by Miles Laboratories (about $55,000 in 1982). The patient was confined to a bed or a chair, the machine checked glucose levels and needed constant supervision to recalibrate the glucose (also delivered insulin). This was the first closed-loop system!
1979 - Tamborlane and Sherwin designed a battery-operated SC insulin pump.
1979 - The glucose kinetics model by Bergman and Cobelli.
1983 - First commercial insulin pump MiniMed 502.
1999 - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first “professional” CGM, with which the patient was blinded to glucose data collected for 3 days, the MiniMed by Medtronic.
Development and Evaluation of a Glucose Analyzer for a Glucose Controlled Insulin Infusion System (Biostator) (https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f8e1/ace60cae8d544f4cceae4f4d9d407a7c9ae0.pdf)
Diabetes: The Biography by Robert Tattersall (p151-152) (https://academic.oup.com/shm/article-abstract/24/3/835/1645976)
From pancreatic extracts to artificial pancreas: History, science and controversies about the discovery of the pancreatic antidiabetic hormone - Edition Jan-Feb 2011 (https://www.elsevier.es/es-revista-avances-diabetologia-326-articulo-from-pancreatic-extracts-artificial-pancreas-S1134323011700059)
Inflammatory Response to Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Systems and the Effect on Insulin Absorption submitted by Dipl. Ing. Jasmin Renée Hauzenberger, BSc. - Department of Internal Medicine Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology 2017 (https://online.medunigraz.at/mug_online/wbabs.getDocument?pThesisNr=53525&pAutorNr=84246&pOrgNR=1)
The Discovery of Insulin: An Important Milestone in the History of Medicine - Frontiers in Endocrinology - Oct 23 2018 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205949/)
The history of insulin pumps, Diabetes Support Forum UK (https://www.diabetes-support.org.uk/info/?p=287)